At the national level, article 305, paragraph 33, of the Constitution of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela establishes the guarantee of food security for the population and confers constitutional character on the various human rights treaties signed by the Republic. Existing legal instruments protect very specific groups of the population, such as workers and children, by establishing specific measures for these human groups. The report « Achieving the Millennium Development Goals » (17) argues that underweight children under five in Venezuela fell to 3.7% in 2009 and 2.9% in 2010. However, in the same group, the percentage of stunted children was 11.2%, three times higher than the weight deficit and expected in the population of developed countries (18). The presence of this change in growth at an early age in our country is necessarily related to conditions of poverty, maternal malnutrition, low birth weight, high prevalence of early teenage pregnancies, insufficient nutrition of macro and micronutrients, deficiencies in the quality of motherhood and child care, the latter having raised serious problems in the provision of the service. described experts on the subject as a « nightmare » (19). The right to food is not the right to a minimum ration of calories, protein and other specific nutrients, nor is the right of a person to be fed. It is a question of guaranteeing the right of each individual to be able to feed himself, which means not only that food is available – that the share of production is sufficient for the whole population – but also that it is accessible – that is, each household can count on the means to produce or receive its own food (5). CENDES-UCV: Marianella Herrera; Yngrid Candela; Andy Delgado White; Jorge Díaz Polanco In the country, food imports have increased by 70%. The 2007 food balance sheet indicates that 43% of calories were of imported origin, but since 2008 (25), the percentage of available calories from imported origin is not given. MARGRET Vidar, FAO legal officer, said: « The state`s obligation to fulfil the right to food consists of two elements: the obligation to provide and the obligation to provide. The commitment to facilitation means that it should create and maintain an enabling environment in which people can meet their dietary needs. Keywords: food security, food consumption, overweight, obesity, malnutrition.

In addition, the right to food of certain groups has been recognized in several international conventions. Other persons or groups that should be contacted before the rapporteur`s mission would be: UCAB researchers, Cendes-UCV researchers, national universities and research centres with a bachelor`s degree and a postgraduate degree in food and nutrition. (Universities: Central de Venezuela, Simón Bolívar, De los Andes, Zulia, Instituto de investigaciones en nutrición (INVESNUT-UC). Western Central University. Associations of agricultural producers of the country, religious groups, IESA, College of National and State Nutritionists and Dietitians, associations of agricultural producers (Cavidea, Fedeagro, Fedeindustria, Convecar). The implementation of the rules on the right to food has had a significant impact on national constitutions, legislation, judicial systems, institutions, policies and programmes, as well as on a number of issues related to food security: fisheries, land, the differential treatment of the most vulnerable groups and access to resources (5). Similarly, the United Nations Special Rapporteur, Oliver De Shutter (5), defines the right to food as « the right to have regular, permanent and free access, either directly or through cash purchases, to quantitatively and qualitatively adequate and sufficient food that corresponds to the cultural traditions of the population to which the consumer belongs and that guarantees a psychological and physical life. individually and collectively, free from torment, satisfying and dignified. » Mercal sells red meat, chicken and sausages (mortadella), but no vegetables and fruits, so most public schools do not report the consumption of fruits and vegetables. In urban and rural areas, the service is irregular, it does not cover the official school calendar, which leads to school absenteeism, since many children receive food only at school. This, along with the supply of unhealthy food, violates the right to healthy and safe food. 1Bengoa Foundation; 2School of Nutrition and Dietetics Central University of Venezuela; 3CENDES-UCV; 4School of Nutrition and Dietetics – Universidad de los Andes; 5 Simón Bolívar University; 6Universidad Centro Occidental Lisandro Alvarado (UCLA); 7Chool of nutritionists and dietitians. Request a copy: Maritza Landaeta-Jimenez: There is one population living in emergency shelters, and another living in newly assigned houses, in isolated geographical areas, far or near urban centers and work centers, but without basic services and public transport, which gives them the opportunity to access adequate food, Limit.

It is worth highlighting the most vulnerable population with reduced physical capacities, institutionalized people who are under the tutelage of NGOs or who have a free life and receive support from them, as well as the population who do not have housing. Another law worth mentioning is that of laws defending individuals for access to goods and services(38), which replace previous consumer protection laws and whose aim is to reduce speculation and hoarding, factors that have influenced access to and availability of food for the population. Among the measures taken was the expropriation or forced acquisition of land and food industries that became socialist enterprises. In 2008 alone, 14 farms or herds were expropriated, attacked or forcibly acquired. In practice, however, this has led to a decline in domestic production, shortages, rural unemployment and a rise in the prices of staple foods, including the range of pulses and fruits, as the supply of inputs for agricultural production has been affected by the intervention of the agroisleña company, which has provided these products and helped to ensure food security. Centro de estudios Ganaderos, 2012- (In Apure Hato San Pablo Pinero (expropriated), Hato El Palito; in Barinas Hato La Madera or Mazzeyero (raided) in Cojedes and La Ceibita Farm; Palo Bayo Farm, Hato El Yaure; to Cojedes Hato Paraima (expropriated), Hato El Charcote (expropriated), Hato El Milagro (intervened) and Hato San José (intervened). In Lara, the hacienda Bucarito. In Guárico, the Bajo Grande farm, the La Rivereña farm and the La Hidalguera farm, which was attacked by 60 families and even changed the name of the farm to « La Perinola » (22). Access to food: food inflation, food programmes: quality in the design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of MERCAL, PDVAL, PAE, among others; Impact of the Fair Costs and Prices Act: Bottlenecks; political discrimination in access to food programmes.

The rapporteur could address several issues, but the issue of expropriations, invasions and forced acquisition of food businesses deserves particular attention, as this measure affects food security in the country and thus violates the right to food. These results show that access to the programme is limited for socio-economically vulnerable groups. Buying in Mercal stores takes place in opportunities in huge queues and buying is also related to buying other foods that are not necessarily a priority for food at home.

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